Approximate locations of Indo-European-speaking populations in Eurasia. Points are colour-coded by linguistic subfamily: red, Germanic; pink, Balto-Slavic; orange, Romance; green, Celtic; blue, Indo-Iranian; Turquoise, Hellenic; grey, Albanian; brown, Armenian. Numbers correspond to point references for populations listed in the electronic supplementary material, table S2.
Reconstructing tale descent histories. Example of an ancestral state reconstruction, showing ATU 330 ‘The Smith and the Devil’ traced on a consensus tree derived from 1000 Bayesian language trees. The proportion of black shading in each internal node represents the average probability of the tale being present in the corresponding hypothetical ancestor across the tree sample. The proportion of red shading in each node represents the number of trees in which the corresponding hypothetical ancestor was absent. Branches are colour-coded by linguistic subfamily. The oldest ancestral node that was reconstructed, Proto-Indo-European, is labelled ‘PIE’.
Estimates for phylogenetic and spatial association in the autologistic analyses. Scatter plot of phylogenetic (λ) and spatial (θ) parameters estimated for 100 tales that returned a strong phylogenetic signal in the D analyses when fitted to the autologistic model.
Estimated contents of ancestral tale corpora. Reconstruction of ancestral Indo-European tale corpora based on analyses of the 76 most phylogenetically conserved tales. Tales contained in each box were reconstructed with a more than 50% likelihood of being present in the corresponding ancestral tale corpus whereas tales in bold represent cases where tales could be securely reconstructed (greater than or equal to 70%). Full results for the ancestral state reconstructions are provided in the electronic supplementary material, table S5. Asterisks denote reconstructions in Proto-Indo-European are based on the results of Bayesian analyses (table 2).
Effects of phylogenetic and spatial association on tale distributions estimated by the autologistic model. Numbers in the cells represent the number of tales affected positively, negatively or neutrally by spatial (Spa) and phylogenetic associations (Phy) among populations.
Results of the Bayesian analyses of Proto-Indo-European tales. Posterior probabilities for the presence/absence of tales reconstructed in Proto-Indo-European were obtained from a most recent common ancestor analysis, performed in BayesTraits (v. 2) . The relative support for each possibility was further assessed by a fossil test. Bayes Factor support for the presence of each tale was evaluated using the interpretive framework suggested by Kass & Rafftery .
Bayes Factor support for presence (interpretation)