Average statistical power from 44 reviews of papers published in journals in the social and behavioural sciences between 1960 and 2011. Data are power to detect small effect sizes (d=0.2), assuming a false-positive rate of α=0.05, and indicate both very low power (mean=0.24) but also no increase over time (R2=0.00097).
Lab pay-offs from the non-evolutionary model. Each graph shows count distributions for high and low effort labs’ total pay-offs after 110 time steps, 100 of which included replication. (a–c) Total count for each pay-off is totalled from 50 runs for each condition. Panel (c) includes an inset that displays the same data as the larger graph, but for a narrower range of pay-offs. The punishment for having one’s novel result fail to replicate is orders of magnitude greater than the benefit of publishing, reflected in the discrete peaks in (b) and (c).