Table 1.

Parameter descriptions and values used in this study.

parameterdescriptionvaluesource
bbirth rate: number of new adult females per adult female0.39 yr−1[29]
ddeath rate: 1/d = life expectancy of an adult1/d ≈ 8 yr, d ≈ 0.125 yr−1[29]: 1/d
dIdeath rate infected salamanders: 1/dI = life expectancy of infected salamander1/dI ≈ 7 days, dI = 52 yr−1[11]: 1/dI
γstrength of density dependence: related to carrying capacity K = (b − d)/γK = 25 females/hectare (ha); compared to densities in table 7.3 in [29], this density is at the lower end of estimated ones. Higher densities would lead to even worse model resultsauthors' estimate, based on [29]
βtransmission coefficient: 1/β = average time period before an infected salamander encounters another salamander, assuming successful infection given an encounter1/β ≈ 1 week, β = 52 ha yr−1authors' estimate
erate at which latents become infectious; 1/ e = average latent period1/e ≈ 1 day, e = 364 yr−1[11]: 1/e
Djdiffusion coefficient of j=S, L or I; Dj=x2j/(4t); t is time in years and 〈 x2〉 is the mean square of the straight line that a salamander travels in a yearx ≈ 0.5 km yr−1authors' estimate
μcolonization rateμ ≈ 1 yr−1authors' estimate