Table 1.

Transmission modes.

mode (notation)descriptionnote
vertical (v)from parent to offspring
horizontal (h)between individuals in the same age group
oblique (o)from older to younger individualsexcludes parent–offspring pairs
age-neutral (n)between any two individuals in the populationequivalent to random drift
mixed (m)a combination of horizontal and obliquesee text (§2.1.3)