Table 1.

Descriptive statistics showing mean closeness (Inclusion of Other in Self score) before and after class, and the change between the two, at each timepoint for the two conditions, showing standard deviations in parentheses. The multi-level linear model (MLM) comparisons between the before and after scores for each condition are given for each timepoint.

mean closeness to class (s.d. in parentheses)MLM comparison between before and after scores
conditiontimepointNbeforeafterchangetd.f.p-value
singing1642.53 (1.34)4.33 (1.61)1.80 (1.36)10.4758<0.0001
2664.95 (1.40)5.67 (1.27)0.71 (0.91)5.7860<0.0001
3585.50 (1.38)6.07 (1.11)0.57 (0.88)4.3153<0.0001
non-singing1463.15 (1.83)3.72 (1.70)0.57 (1.05)3.80420.0005
2364.42 (1.54)4.94 (1.59)0.53 (0.97)3.22340.003
3325.53 (1.44)5.78 (1.39)0.25 (0.51)2.74280.011