Table 1.

Observations of leaf processing in an A. cephalotes laboratory colony following the delivery of a new leaf disc to the fungus garden. The behaviours are ordered according to their typical first appearance during processing. Only studies that examined Atta spp. are included in the reference column of this table.

behaviour (synonyms used in the literature)descriptionshort defining video cliplong video clipreferences
compilation of behavioursall short clipsa
holding (hoisting)mandibles are used to lift and stabilize a leaf disc or a fragment that other ants are processingholding shortbholding longk[17,22,26,29,30]
licking (rasping)the surfaces and edges of a leaf disc or fragment are contacted with the glossa and palpslicking shortclicking longl[1518,2022,29,30]
scrapingless common: the mandibles are actuated repeatedly at or near the leaf surface during lickingscraping shortdscraping longm[30]
cutting (shredding)mandibles are cut either by dragging one mandible through the leaf, or by a symmetrical two-mandible techniquecutting shortecutting longn[1518,2022,26,29,30,32]
puncturing (chewing, crimping, masticating, scarring, pressing)the edge of a leaf fragment is held between the mandibles, which are closed to puncture both sides with the mandibular teethpuncturing shortfpuncturing longo[1618,2022,29,30]
adding abdominal emissions (depositing faecal fluid)less common: abdominal excretion is deposited or transferred onto a fragment being processedadding abdominal emissions shortgadding abdominal emissions longp[22,29,30]
caching fragmentsa fragment is temporarily set down in a region of the comb with other fragmentscaching shorthcaching longq
inserting fragmentsa leaf fragment is inserted in the fungal comb while the fragment is rocked from side to sideinserting shortiinserting longr[15,16,2022,29,30,32]
inoculating fragmentsfresh hyphal tufts are plucked from older comb and attached to or between leaf fragments that have recently been incorporatedinoculating shortjinoculating longs[15,17,20,21,29,30]