Table 1.

Most-parsimonious tree statistics for alternative placements of the Amphicyonidae.

exclusively monophyletic group enforced in constrained tree searchTree lengthCIRI
none (unconstrained search resulting in figure 1)2720.3960.624
Amphicyonidaea + Lycophocyon hutchisoni2740.3920.618
Amphicyonidaea within or sister to crown-group Arctoidea2750.3910.616
Amphicyonidaea + Cephalogalini (stem ursids)2750.3910.616
Amphicyonidaea + Cephalogalini + Broiliana + Amphicticeps2750.3880.611
Amphicyonidaea + Canidae2770.3890.614
  • aTaxonomic composition of the amphicyonid clade (as recovered in the consensus tree from the unconstrained search; figure 1)—but not its internal topology—was held constant across all constrained searches.