Table 2.

Results of the GAM (final model) for the whole time-series (1976–2014). The generalized cross validation (GCV), the deviance explained (Dev. Expl.) and the number of observations (n) are indicated. For each predictor, the degrees of freedom (d.f.), the significance value (p) and the deviance explained by the model excluding the corresponding predictor (Difference Dev. Expl. %) are provided. Predictors without statistics indicate that they were excluded by the backward stepwise model selection.

GAMspredictorsGCVr2 (adj.)Dev. Expl. (%)nd.f.Fp-valueDifference Dev. Expl. (%)single predictor
model 1976–2014cod abundance1.002.710.112.332.03
sprat biomass2.033.120.0497.1039.40
herring biomass
seal abundance2.577.680.000710.4863.00
hypoxic areas 20–100 m1.0019.770.00018.7367.20
final model0.2290.8385.9037