Table 1.

Payoff matrix, where C indicates a cooperator and D a defector. This minimal payoff structure covers the scenario in which (i) the civil sector may confer reputational benefits (bR) to the public sector whenever both sectors support the paradigm shift; (ii) private companies that embrace the paradigm shift entail a technological cost (cT), yet, doing so may entitle them to receive a subsidy benefit (bS) provided by the public sector at a cost cS; (iii) a civil sector opting for the paradigm shift may also benefit (for simplicity, we assume the same value bS) and (iv) whenever civil and private sectors are strategically aligned, a potential synergistic effect σ may occur.

strategiespayoffs accruing to each player
publicprivatecivilpublicprivatecivil
CCCbR − 2cSσ + bS − cTσ + bS
CCD−cSbS − cT0
CDCbR − cS0bS
CDD0σσ
DCC0σ − cTσ
DCD0cT0
DDC000
DDD0σσ