Table 1.

Spatial position of leaders relative to followers. (Table shows results for the four binomial GLMMs with random factors pair nested in shoal and crossed with section, run using averages from 50-frame fixed sections of the track. The response variables were binomial, indicating whether a leader fish was positioned in front/behind (models 1 and 2), above/below (model 3) or left/right (model 4) of the follower fish. Model significances were tested against the Holm–Bonferroni stepwise correction for multiple tests and remained significant.)

model numberbinary response variableproportion of pointsestimates.e.Zp-value
1elevation body orientation0.52 below−0.0850.16−0.520.60
2elevation gravity0.53 below−0.130.18−0.740.46
3front/back0.70 front−0.900.17−5.33<0.0001
4left/right0.52 left−0.110.13−0.870.39